1.1 Background to the Study
According to Smith (2008), Education can be defined as the process of inviting truth and possibility. It can be defined as the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to shave in life.
Laboratory facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The dictum that “teaching is inseparable from learning but learning is not separable from teaching” is that teachers do the teaching to make the students learn, but students can learn without the teachers.
According to Akande (2000), learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practical’s are arranged (Farrant, 2001 and Farombi, 2006).
According to Oni (2002), facilities constitute a strategic factor in organizational functioning. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any social organization or system including education. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high productivity. In his words, Farombi (2006) opined that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with quality teachers, learning infrastructures that with such, students may learn with ease thus bringing about good academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (2002) submitted that no effective science education programme can exist without equipment for teaching. This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. In their contribution,
According to Nigerian Tribune on Thursday 25 November 2009, in caption; Mass Failure will Continue until…” the chairman of the National Committee of WAEC, Dr. U.B Ahmed opined that the classroom is the origin of failure… a close look at the public schools and what goes on there shows that nothing good can come out of most schools as they do not have facilities, adequate and appropriate human resources to prepare candidates for WASCE.
The above statement indicates that the problem of candidates’ mass failure in WAEC’s organized examination will continue until the situation of the nation’s public schools change for the better. Writing on how to improve primary education in developing countries, World Bank publication (2005), citing Mwamwenda and Mwamwenda (2007) linked performance of students to the provision of adequate facilities while referring to a survey of 51 primary schools in Botswana that students performed significantly better on academic tests when they had adequate classrooms, desks and books. Earlier, Fagbamiye (2000) attesting to why students’ performance standard fall observed 559 cases from 13 secondary schools in Lagos State using age, type of school (Day or Boarding, mixed or single sex), teachers qualification and teaching experience as well as intake quality using students’ entrance examination achievement. His findings revealed that schools which are equipped had good records of achievement and attracted more students. He concluded that good quality schools in terms of facilities and younger students’ intake perform better in WASCE. Commenting on why high academic attainment is not in vogue in Nigeria, Adesina (2004) identified poor and inadequate facilities, obsolete teaching techniques… overcrowded classrooms among others, as factors. Throwing more light on laboratory facilities and moral guiding provision, Fabunmi (2003) asserted that laboratory facilities when provided will aid teaching learning programme and consequently improve academic achievement of students while the models guiding their provision to schools could take any form as rational bureaucratic and or political model. Whichever model is adopted, according to him, there is always a common feature of differing allocation of facilities to schools. In his words, Ojoawo (2002), however, noted that certain schools are favored in the allocation of facilities at the expense of others. Writing on poor performance of students in public examinations, London (2003) stated that in many developing nations certain facilities are none existent, and that those instances where amenities are available many are of sub-standard quality. What is even more alarming is the relationship, which these observers claim to exist between quality of facilities and academic achievement. Lamenting on the glowing inadequacies of laboratory facilities in our educational industry, Akinkugbe (2004) opined that everywhere you look, primary, secondary, special, technical, tertiary, there is abundant evidence of crippling inertia, criminal neglect and a pervasive decay in values and standard.
Other scholars (Wilcockson 2004, Lawal 2005, Ajayi 2006, Suleiman 2006) have variously identified the significance of facilities in teaching learning spheres. We can say that absence or poor (and or deteriorating) quality of educational facilities can affect academic performance. Gamoran (2002), however, holding a contrary view noted that facilities… teachers’ salaries, books in the library and the presence of science laboratory, had little impact on variation in student achievement once student background variables had been taken into account. This statement connotes that before such student could perform well in higher educational level, he must have been groomed or cushioned by availability of resources in his elementary days upon which he now uses as spring board.
1.2 Statement of the Problem.
This research work is to evaluate the achievement of students in public and private schools in senior secondary certificate examination. There has been very poor approach to the teaching of biology in senior secondary schools over the years. The controversy over the question of academic achievement of Nigeria secondary school students. The low achievement of students especially in SSCE has clearly led credence to this study. The question of academic achievement and students’ achievement in SSCE is therefore a recurring issue, usually discussed both in and outside the academic circles.
Laboratory facility is a systematic way of evaluating designing and carry out the teaching learning process. Teaching facilities make teaching more effective, understandable and meaningful and these types of resources are used to make the learning easy.
Previous studies have shown how achievement in biology examination both in private and public schools is ineffective. This can be as a result of insufficient laboratory facilities, man power, lackadaisical attitude of students to learning of subject and poor understanding of the concept involve. Another reason could be ineffective teaching method. There is also need to improve the teaching and learning of biology. There is also need to evaluate the achievement of public and private schools’ students in senior secondary schools’ certificate examination (SSCE) biology in Bwari Area Council of FCT, Abuja.
1.3 Purpose of the Study.
The purpose of this study is an evaluation of the relationship between laboratory facility, organization and management and the academic achievement of biology student of senior secondary schools in Bwari Area Council, FCT-Abuja. This study therefore had the following objectives:
- To find out the achievement of students in biology in SSCE in public and private senior secondary schools in Bwari Area Council of FCT from 2010 to 2014.
- To find out the achievement of male students in biology in private and public senior secondary schools in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Bwari Area Council of FCT from 2010 to 2014.
iii. To find out the achievement of female students in biology in public and private secondary schools in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Bwari Area Council of FCT from 2010 to 2014.
- To find out the achievement of male and female students in public schools in SSCE biology in Bwari Area Council of FCT?
- To find out the achievement of male and female students in private schools in SSCE biology in Bwari Area Council of FCT.
1.4 Research Questions.
The questions this research attempted to answer include the following:
1 What is the distinction in the achievement of students in public and private schools in biology in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Bwari Area Council of FCT?
2 What is the distinction in the achievement of male students in public and private schools in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) in Bwari Area Council of FCT?
3 What is the distinction in the achievement of female students in public and private schools in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) in Bwari Area Council of FCT?
4 What is the distinction in the achievement of male and female students in public schools in SSCE biology in Bwari Area Council of FCT?
5 What is the distinction in the achievement of male and female students in private schools in SSCE biology in Bwari Area Council of FCT.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The research formulated the following hypotheses:
- There is no significant differences between the achievement of students in public and private secondary schools.
- There is no significant differences between the achievement of male and female students in public and private secondary schools in SSCE biology in Bwari Area Council of FCT, Abuja.
1.6 Significance of the study.
This study is on the evaluation of private and public. The finding would be of benefit to the following policy makers and educational administrators, biology teachers, parents and other stakeholders and other researchers who may be interested in this work. Policy makers and educational administrators would benefit from the research in the sense that it would enable them to provide the necessary facilities and policies that will facilitate and improve the teaching and learning.
It will also provide information for parents and other stakeholders in terms of areas of participation and contribution towards the improvement of learning of biology by their wards in their schools. Other researchers who might be interested in undertaking this type of research or related study may find this work important.
1.7 Scope of the study.
This study evaluates the achievement of students in public and private secondary schools in biology in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Bwari Area Council of FCT, Abuja. Due to time factor and resources available, the research was restricted to two public secondary schools and two private secondary schools in Bwari Area Council of FCT, Abuja. Selected schools were:
i Government Secondary School, Kubwa 11, Kubwa, (Public)
ii Government Secondary School, Ghitapere (Public).
iii Jewel Model Secondary School, Kubwa (Private).
iv Shinning Star Collage, Kubwa (Private).
The results of students in Biology in SSCE in five consecutive years were used for the study.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms.
For clarity, the terms used in this study are hereby defined:
Academic achievement: Refers to the level of schooling you have successfully completed and the ability to attain success in your studies.
Biology: Is a science that deals with the study of living things. Second year secondary students are the one taking this subject.
Evaluation: Is a systematic collection and analysis of data in order to assess the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.
Facility: A place, especially including buildings, where a particular activity happens:
Laboratory: A room or building with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or for teaching science, or a place where chemicals or medicines are produced:
Management: The organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money.
Organization: A social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals
Relation: A logical or natural association between two or more things. Relevance of one to another, connection.
Relationship: A connection between variables, such as a correlation, or between people, such as a marriage.
Teaching: Is a process of imparting knowledge
Learning: Is the act, process or experience of gaining knowledge or skill
Private school: Is a school run and supported by private individuals or corporation rather than by a government or public agency.
Public school: A public school is a school run and supported by government using the public funds.
SSCE: this is Senior Secondary Certificate Examination
Student: A person training to become a teacher, nurse, etc.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and Study
1.7 Operational Definitions of Terms
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 History of Laboratory
2.3 Type of Laboratory
2.4 Organization of Laboratory
2.5 Management of Laboratory
2.6 Empirical studies on Laboratory Efficiency
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Research Question One
4.3 Research Question Two
4.4 Research Question Three
4.5 Research Question Four
4.6 Research Question Five
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.5 Suggestion for Further Research