Biology Teachers’ Awareness And Utilization Of Various Science Teaching Strategies

Bachelors Degree

The study covered selected secondary schools in Chanchaga Local Government Area of Niger State. The scope of this study was limited to Biology tutors of the selected secondary schools in Chanchaga. The variable scope of this study is awareness and utilization of various science teaching strategies and the study lasted for four (4) weeks.


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The word “science” and it contribution to humanity cannot be over emphasized. Science comes from the Latin word “scientia” meaning “knowledge”. According to the Webster’ New Collegiate Dictionary of Science is “knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, especially as obtained and tested through scientific method concerned with the physical world”. So therefore, the word “biology” is derived from the Greek word ‘bios’ and ‘logos’ meaning ‘life’ and ‘study’ respectively and is defined as the science of life and living organism (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Biology Department). We can now deduce from the above definition that science is a system of acquiring knowledge which uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena.

The roles of tutors are often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college (.M. Amatora, 1950). These professional qualifications may include the study of pedagogy, the science of teaching. Teachers, like other professionals, may have to continue their education after they qualify, a process known as continuing professional development (Department of Education and Skills, Ireland, 23 July, 2012). In the process of acquiring knowledge, it is expected that a good and well trained science tutors should be able to know that in imparting knowledge to students (which comprises of both fast and slow learners) different methods of teaching ought to be looked into carefully so as to enhance fast and easy comprehension of what is been taught. But today reverse is the case in many of our secondary schools in Nigeria (Omorogiuwa & Ogumogu 2013).

STAN (Science Teachers Association of Nigeria), ASTE (Association of Science Teachers Education) and so many others strive to be the leading voice (STAN for Nigeria and ASTE world-wide) most especially in the areas of research and policy development related to the enhancement of science teaching, but how many of this research and policies that are made have so far being implemented? If at all any have being implemented, what is the attitude of the science teachers toward utilizing them in their various schools? While it is true that there are teachers whose attitudes are positive towards the promotion of good science teaching-learning situations, for most students, in many parts of Nigeria, the reality of the school classroom consists of lessons where science is transmitted by their teachers, at best, as a set of facts, laws and data (STAN, 30Nov., 1957, ASTE and NSTA (National Science Teachers Association), 2003-2004).

As a result of all this, science teaching, has not being able to make reasonable progress in the Nigeria educational system and it has also deprived science students from going beyond the lowest hierarchy of learning outcomes in science which is knowledge or factual recall level (Ali, 1975), He went further to say that the lecture method does not provide the students opportunities to go to the higher levels of cognitive learning which are applications, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

According to (Omosewo, (1998), higher institutions in Nigeria charged with the responsibility of training science teachers at all level are increasingly turning out teachers without the basics in actual methodology of science teaching. The numbers of institutions charged with these responsibilities are increasing day by day and thousands of science teachers are coming out of these institutions without the basic requirement in terms of passing appropriate knowledge using various science teaching methods to do that. Hence, they always resort to the traditional way of teaching science which is lecture method (Abimbola, 1994)

Furthermore, apart from a science teacher knowing the bases, he/she should also be groomed in he/her own field of science (whether Physics, Chemistry or Biology) and also in the various methodologies of science teaching (Alant, 1994).

Therefore, there is need for science teachers to make their classroom interactive (being a method of teaching science for example experimentation, simulation, constructivism, vee mapping e.t.c will go a long way to improve science teaching in Nigeria.

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Table of Contents

Title page

Table of Content


1.1 Background of the Study 

1.2 Statement of the problem 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Research Hypothesis

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.8 Definition of Terms


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Conceptual Framework

2.2.1 Mathematics Concepts Overview

2.2.2 Computer Based-Test Overview

2.2.3 Importance of Mathematics

2.3 Theoretical Framework

2.3.1 Bruner’s Theory of Learning

2.3.2 Dienes’ Theory of Learning Mathematics

2.3.3 Skemp’s Theory of Learning Mathematics

2.4 Empirical Framework

2.5 Summary of the Chapter


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Population of the Study

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.5 Instrumentation

3.6 Validation of instrument

3.7 Reliability of instrument

3.8 Method of Data Collection

3.9 Techniques for Data Analysis


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Statistical Procedure

4.3 Research Question and Hypothesis Testing

4.4 Discussion of Result


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

5.5 suggestion for further research




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