Childhood educator is the type of education given to children at the ages of 3-11 years; it is also seen to be a crucial stage in life, and literally termed “bedrock” stage of the levels of education (Nzeribe, 2003).
The United Declaration on Human Right attached a great weight to education; and in response to the universal call, the world conference on “education for all” (EFA) was held in Jaintan, Thailand in (1990) and Dakar, Senegal in (2005) respectively. The outcome of these conferences gave birth to the following objectives which were to be vigorously pursued;
Ensuring that all children, particularly girls in a difficult situation and those belonging to the ethnic minority should have access to a completely free and compulsory primary education of good quality.
Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood education especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children
Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adult to appropriate learning and life skills programme. (UNESCO, EFA, Global Monitoring Report (2008).
Childhood education is an educational provision to children prior to their entering secondary schools. Childhood education can be divided into two (2) stages; Early childhood education (pre-primary education) and late childhood education (primary education), Nzeribe, 2003. Pre-primary education (early childhood education) is an education provision for children between the ages of 0-6 years, kindergarten (KG) and crèches are comparable with early childhood education. The term daycare and childcare centers are now using more educational approaches, these are creating curricular and incorporating it into their daily routine to foster greater educational learning, (Kegal and Routledge, (1982). Primary education (late childhood education) is also an educational provision given to children between the ages of 6-11 years and above. according to Kayode (2006), primary education begins at the age of Six (6) and for the majority of Nigerian pupils spent six years in primary school and graduate with a school leaving certificate. Subjects taught at the primary school level includes; mathematics, English languages, Islamic knowledge, bible knowledge, science and one of the main ethnic language (Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo). Private schools will also offer computer science, French, and art. Therefore, the pre-primary and the primary education is made up of childhood education is made up of childhood education which the best of the educational system is built upon.
If the child does not receive sufficient nurturing, nutrition, parental caregiving interactive talk and stimulation during this crucial period of childhood, the child may be left with developmental defects or deficits, which will hinder his or her success in pre-primary and primary education.
Following this development and Nigerian commitment to the eradication of illiteracy in Nigeria, universal basic education (UBE) was founded in 1999. Despite the universal recognition, the basic education attached to the childhood education is still bedeviled with the number of challenges they have crippled the level and hindered the achievement of EFA declaration in the Federal Capital Territory and Kuje Area Council in particular.
This work develops under the evaluation of the challenges in the management of childhood education and their academic performance in Kuje Area Council, FCT. Questionnaires were used in collecting data during the research and the findings showed that there are challenges in the management of childhood education and their academic performance in the area. The challenge includes lack of qualified teachers, poor staff welfare, inadequate material resources, inadequate funds and pupils indiscipline. It is recommended that head teachers supervisors, education administrators, policymakers and parents, the stakeholders) should be re-oriented as a way of providing quality basic education to the children in pre-primary and primary levels. Also, the government should provide adequate funds for effective implementation of the school programmes.